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    奧密克戎或成地方常見???

    奧密克戎或成地方常見???

    Jeremy Khan 2022-01-30
    一些國家已經決定,對奧密克戎采取置之不理的態度。

    奧密克戎變異毒株在多個國家瘋狂肆虐,感染率達到了自新冠疫情爆發以來的最高點。2021年12月27日,全球新冠肺炎日新增確診病例超過140萬例,創歷史新高。

    多國政府已經收緊了防疫措施,重新實施更嚴格的社交距離限制,甚至重新進入封鎖狀態,比如荷蘭,2021年12月中旬再次頒布了封鎖令。但一些國家已經決定,采取置之不理的態度。這些地方的現行防疫措施比之前幾波疫情時還要寬松。

    以下幾個國家都拒絕收緊防疫措施,讓我們來看一看它們準備如何應對奧密克戎變異毒株。

    英格蘭

    迄今為止,英格蘭當局仍然拒絕重新嚴格實施保持社交距離的措施,例如,立法禁止6人以上的聚會,以及要求餐館和酒吧只提供戶外服務。然而,除英格蘭外,英國本土的其他地區,威爾士、蘇格蘭和北愛爾蘭,已經出臺了新的防疫限制措施。威爾士要求劇院和電影院執行社交距離兩米的規則,禁止舉辦體育賽事和其它大型聚會,并規定酒吧和餐館只提供就座的餐飲服務。

    實際上,英格蘭甚至還實行了一項放松限制的措施:新冠肺炎確診者可以通過核酸檢測,將10天的自我隔離期縮短至7天。如果隔離第六天還沒有任何癥狀出現,且第六天和第七天的快速核酸檢測結果均為陰性,就能夠提前結束隔離。

    美國

    其他國家也采取了類似的措施來放松防疫限制。美國疾控中心(Centers for Disease Control)發布了新的指導意見,將無癥狀者的自我隔離期縮短至5天,但該中心同時建議,隔離期結束后的5天內,如果有他人在場,也應該佩戴口罩。

    美國疾控中心表示,根據不斷演變的數據可知,從出現新冠癥狀前的一至兩天到出現癥狀后三天這段時間內的傳染性最強,而發布的防疫新規正是在此基礎上制定的。在美國和英國,由于奧密克戎變異毒株飛速傳播,大部分人被迫居家隔離,無法工作,因此出現了經濟混亂現象,相關新規旨在對此進行抑制。美國的許多航空公司由于缺少機組人員,排班出現困難,而不得不取消航班。許多英國醫務人員進行自我隔離,缺勤率升高,使本來已經極度緊張的國民醫療服務體系(National Health Service)雪上加霜。

    歐洲

    意大利政府擔心現行自我隔離措施可能會導致國家經濟癱瘓,所以表示正在考慮修改防疫規定。意大利現行防疫措施規定,密接者若已經接種疫苗,必須隔離7天;而未接種疫苗者,即使核酸檢測呈陰性,并且沒有任何癥狀,也要隔離10天。

    其他歐洲國家的政府官員和衛生部門也在修改防疫策略,以應對奧密克戎變異毒株的襲擊。

    在西班牙,政府重新出臺法律規定,要求人們在戶外必須佩戴口罩,但也允許一些例外情況的存在。比如,當人們“在大自然環境中”,與同住的家人共處時,以及可以充分保持安全社交距離的情況下,無需佩戴口罩。當地時間2021年12月29日,西班牙政府的衛生委員會將決定是否仿效英美,縮短現為10天的自我隔離期。西班牙只有加泰羅尼亞一個地區選擇再次收緊防疫措施,例如實施夜間宵禁、限制餐館和其他室內場所的人流量等。

    向現實低頭

    雖然奧密克戎是迄今為止最具傳染性的新冠病毒變體,但南非等地的初步研究數據表明,感染奧密克戎導致的病癥可能要比之前的病毒變體(比如德爾塔變異毒株)引發的癥狀輕。這就是面對更高傳染力的奧密克戎變異毒株,各國政府反而放松防疫措施的科學依據。

    此外,新冠疫情爆發早期,感染率和住院率呈緊密正相關。而現在,充分接種疫苗的人數增加,很多人打了加強針。因此,即使感染率升高,住院率也不一定會大幅增加。各國政府之所以決定實施封鎖措施,嚴格要求保持安全社交距離,主要原因一直是害怕衛生保健系統不堪重負而崩潰。

    然而,放松對奧密克戎變異毒株的防護措施,在某種程度上反映了經濟上的必要性。如果感染病毒就要居家隔離,如此高的感染率之下,國家根本無法承擔隔離這么多勞動力的代價。意大利Gimbe健康基金會的負責人尼諾·卡塔貝洛塔于2021年12月27日表示,如果不修改現有防疫規定,多達1000萬的意大利人(占總人口的六分之一)就必須被隔離。

    在某些情況下,防疫措施的放松也僅是政治上的權宜之計。英國首相鮑里斯·約翰遜正在遭受來自保守黨內部的反對,他自己的內閣成員也提出異議,認為應對奧密克戎變異毒株無需收緊防疫措施。這些人認為,新出臺的收緊措施是對個人自由的不必要侵犯。

    受一系列丑聞的影響,約翰遜的支持率直線下降,政治處境岌岌可危。他在議會補缺選舉中前所未有地大敗,令保守黨內部許多人都開始對其領導能力產生懷疑。他甚至不得不依靠反對黨工黨的支持,才讓議會通過了當前的防疫收緊措施。如果約翰遜試圖進一步升級防疫要求,那么他可能會遭受保守黨內的全面反對。(財富中文網)

    譯者:Transn

    奧密克戎變異毒株在多個國家瘋狂肆虐,感染率達到了自新冠疫情爆發以來的最高點。2021年12月27日,全球新冠肺炎日新增確診病例超過140萬例,創歷史新高。

    多國政府已經收緊了防疫措施,重新實施更嚴格的社交距離限制,甚至重新進入封鎖狀態,比如荷蘭,2021年12月中旬再次頒布了封鎖令。但一些國家已經決定,采取置之不理的態度。這些地方的現行防疫措施比之前幾波疫情時還要寬松。

    以下幾個國家都拒絕收緊防疫措施,讓我們來看一看它們準備如何應對奧密克戎變異毒株。

    英格蘭

    迄今為止,英格蘭當局仍然拒絕重新嚴格實施保持社交距離的措施,例如,立法禁止6人以上的聚會,以及要求餐館和酒吧只提供戶外服務。然而,除英格蘭外,英國本土的其他地區,威爾士、蘇格蘭和北愛爾蘭,已經出臺了新的防疫限制措施。威爾士要求劇院和電影院執行社交距離兩米的規則,禁止舉辦體育賽事和其它大型聚會,并規定酒吧和餐館只提供就座的餐飲服務。

    實際上,英格蘭甚至還實行了一項放松限制的措施:新冠肺炎確診者可以通過核酸檢測,將10天的自我隔離期縮短至7天。如果隔離第六天還沒有任何癥狀出現,且第六天和第七天的快速核酸檢測結果均為陰性,就能夠提前結束隔離。

    美國

    其他國家也采取了類似的措施來放松防疫限制。美國疾控中心(Centers for Disease Control)發布了新的指導意見,將無癥狀者的自我隔離期縮短至5天,但該中心同時建議,隔離期結束后的5天內,如果有他人在場,也應該佩戴口罩。

    美國疾控中心表示,根據不斷演變的數據可知,從出現新冠癥狀前的一至兩天到出現癥狀后三天這段時間內的傳染性最強,而發布的防疫新規正是在此基礎上制定的。在美國和英國,由于奧密克戎變異毒株飛速傳播,大部分人被迫居家隔離,無法工作,因此出現了經濟混亂現象,相關新規旨在對此進行抑制。美國的許多航空公司由于缺少機組人員,排班出現困難,而不得不取消航班。許多英國醫務人員進行自我隔離,缺勤率升高,使本來已經極度緊張的國民醫療服務體系(National Health Service)雪上加霜。

    歐洲

    意大利政府擔心現行自我隔離措施可能會導致國家經濟癱瘓,所以表示正在考慮修改防疫規定。意大利現行防疫措施規定,密接者若已經接種疫苗,必須隔離7天;而未接種疫苗者,即使核酸檢測呈陰性,并且沒有任何癥狀,也要隔離10天。

    其他歐洲國家的政府官員和衛生部門也在修改防疫策略,以應對奧密克戎變異毒株的襲擊。

    在西班牙,政府重新出臺法律規定,要求人們在戶外必須佩戴口罩,但也允許一些例外情況的存在。比如,當人們“在大自然環境中”,與同住的家人共處時,以及可以充分保持安全社交距離的情況下,無需佩戴口罩。當地時間2021年12月29日,西班牙政府的衛生委員會將決定是否仿效英美,縮短現為10天的自我隔離期。西班牙只有加泰羅尼亞一個地區選擇再次收緊防疫措施,例如實施夜間宵禁、限制餐館和其他室內場所的人流量等。

    向現實低頭

    雖然奧密克戎是迄今為止最具傳染性的新冠病毒變體,但南非等地的初步研究數據表明,感染奧密克戎導致的病癥可能要比之前的病毒變體(比如德爾塔變異毒株)引發的癥狀輕。這就是面對更高傳染力的奧密克戎變異毒株,各國政府反而放松防疫措施的科學依據。

    此外,新冠疫情爆發早期,感染率和住院率呈緊密正相關。而現在,充分接種疫苗的人數增加,很多人打了加強針。因此,即使感染率升高,住院率也不一定會大幅增加。各國政府之所以決定實施封鎖措施,嚴格要求保持安全社交距離,主要原因一直是害怕衛生保健系統不堪重負而崩潰。

    然而,放松對奧密克戎變異毒株的防護措施,在某種程度上反映了經濟上的必要性。如果感染病毒就要居家隔離,如此高的感染率之下,國家根本無法承擔隔離這么多勞動力的代價。意大利Gimbe健康基金會的負責人尼諾·卡塔貝洛塔于2021年12月27日表示,如果不修改現有防疫規定,多達1000萬的意大利人(占總人口的六分之一)就必須被隔離。

    在某些情況下,防疫措施的放松也僅是政治上的權宜之計。英國首相鮑里斯·約翰遜正在遭受來自保守黨內部的反對,他自己的內閣成員也提出異議,認為應對奧密克戎變異毒株無需收緊防疫措施。這些人認為,新出臺的收緊措施是對個人自由的不必要侵犯。

    受一系列丑聞的影響,約翰遜的支持率直線下降,政治處境岌岌可危。他在議會補缺選舉中前所未有地大敗,令保守黨內部許多人都開始對其領導能力產生懷疑。他甚至不得不依靠反對黨工黨的支持,才讓議會通過了當前的防疫收緊措施。如果約翰遜試圖進一步升級防疫要求,那么他可能會遭受保守黨內的全面反對。(財富中文網)

    譯者:Transn

    The Omicron variant is tearing through country after country, leading to the highest infection rates yet seen in the pandemic. Global COVID infections hit a daily record of more than 1.4 million confirmed cases on December 27.

    Many governments have responded by reimposing tighter social distancing restrictions and even going back into lockdown, as the Netherlands did in mid-December 2021. But some countries have decided that the best response to Omicron is, well, a shrug. These places are choosing to implement looser protocols than in previous COVID-19 waves.

    Here are how countries that have decided against tighter restrictions are dealing with the Omicron wave.

    England

    In England, the government has so far declined to reimpose strict social distancing measures, such as legally barring gatherings of more than six people or requiring restaurants and bars to only offer outside table service. This is despite the fact that the other parts of the U.K.—Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland—have brought in new restrictions. Wales, for instance, has required theaters and cinemas to enforce a two-meter social distancing rule, banned sporting events and other large gatherings, and required bars and restaurants to only serve customers seated at tables.

    England has actually loosened restrictions in one respect: It has reduced the period that individuals with COVID-19 must self-isolate from 10 days to seven, provided they are asymptomatic on day six and have negative lateral flow tests on days six and seven.

    The United States

    Other countries have taken similar steps to ease quarantine. In the U.S., the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued new guidance reducing the self-isolation period to just five days for asymptomatic individuals, although it also recommended that people should continue to wear a mask when around others for another five days after that.

    The CDC said the new guidance reflected evolving data showing people were most infectious one to two days before the onset of symptoms and up to three days afterward. But in both the U.S. and England, the new rules are also designed to dampen the economic disruption the fast-spreading Omicron virus is causing as droves of infected workers are forced to stay home. In the U.S., many airlines have had to cancel flights owing to their inability to schedule crews, and in the U.K. high rates of absenteeism resulting from health care workers self-isolating has further strained the already stretched National Health Service.

    Europe

    The Italian government, fearful that its current rules on self-isolation might cause economic paralysis, said it is also considering revising its quarantine requirements. Currently, vaccinated Italians who come into contact with someone with COVID-19 must isolate for seven days and unvaccinated people for 10, even if they don’t test positive or develop symptoms themselves.

    Elsewhere in Europe, politicians and health authorities are also modifying their pandemic playbooks in response to Omicron.

    In Spain, the government reintroduced a legal requirement to wear masks outdoors. But it also created a number of exceptions, not requiring masks when people were “in a natural setting” or in a group with live-in relatives, or where they could otherwise maintain social distancing. And on Wednesday, the Spanish government’s health committee will decide whether to reduce the quarantine period from its current 10 days, much like the U.S. and the U.K. have done. Only one region of the country, Catalonia, has chosen to reintroduce much stricter rules, such as a nighttime curfew and limits on the capacity of restaurants and other indoor venues.

    Bowing to reality

    To some extent, the decision to impose looser restrictions for Omicron, despite much higher infection rates than in previous COVID-19 waves, reflects the best scientific evidence: While Omicron is the most transmissible coronavirus variant so far, preliminary data from South Africa and elsewhere seems to indicate that it causes less severe disease than some earlier variants, such as the Delta strain.

    Also, unlike earlier in the pandemic, today more people are fully vaccinated, and many have received booster doses as well, which can break the tight connection between infection rates and hospitalizations seen earlier the pandemic. The risk of health care systems being overwhelmed has been the primary driver behind governments deciding to impose lockdowns and other strict social distancing requirements.

    But to some degree, the more lenient measures being opted for with Omicron reflect economic necessity: With so many people infected, countries can simply not afford to have so many workers isolating at home. In Italy, Nino Cartabellotta, the head of the Gimbe health foundation, said on December 27 that unless they were modified, the country’s existing requirements would mean as many as 10 million Italians, one-sixth of the entire country’s population, would have to quarantine.

    In some cases, they also reflect political expediency. In the U.K., Prime Minister Boris Johnson has faced a revolt from within his own Conservative Party, including members of his own cabinet, over the need for any further restrictions to combat Omicron. Some members of Johnson’s base see renewed legal obligations as unnecessary impingements on individual liberty.

    The prime minister, whose popularity has plummeted owing to a string of scandals, is in a precarious political situation, with many in his own party doubting his leadership after historic setbacks in parliamentary by-elections. He has already had to rely on support from the opposition Labour Party to get current coronavirus restrictions passed through Parliament, and he might face a full-scale revolt from within his party if he tries to implement any stricter requirements.

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