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    說到沒做到,企業應對氣候變化不力

    說到沒做到,企業應對氣候變化不力

    Nicole Goodkind 2022-02-14
    最近的分析發現,其中有很多公司在兌現其承諾方面還做的遠遠不夠。

    全球有200多家大型公司已承諾在2040年前實現凈零排放,這意味著他們對待氣候變化的態度是異常認真的。然而,最近的分析發現,其中有很多公司在兌現其承諾方面還做的遠遠不夠。

    促進減緩氣候變化舉措的獨立機構新氣候研究所(New Climate Institute)的報告稱,這些公司的計劃僅能夠讓排放平均降低40%。盡管削減幅度巨大,但與這些公司所聲稱的目標還相距甚遠。

    新氣候研究所的一名分析師、該調查作者托馬斯·戴在一份聲明中表示:“我們對于自己看到的一切充滿了幼稚的樂觀。令我們感到失望的是,我們所發現的創造力要比預期的少很多?!?/p>

    該報告審視了25家已承諾在未來數十年內實現凈零碳排放的大型知名企業,包括亞馬遜(Amazon)、蘋果(Apple)、谷歌(Google)和沃爾瑪(Walmart)。其中很多公司計劃通過從移除大氣二氧化碳的項目那里購買積分來抵消排放影響。

    研究人員指出,問題在于其中很多項目并不可靠而且名不副實。報告稱:“至少有三分之二的公司依靠森林或其他生態活動帶來的碳移除效力,然而,它很容易被逆轉,例如一場森林大火?!?/p>

    但是,各大公司認為,自己在預防碳排放和氣候變化造成的進一步破壞方面所取得的成果依然遠超很多首要國家。一些公司認為,該報告只是談到了其部分計劃。

    例如,葛蘭素史克(GlaxoSmithKline)稱,公司將使用“滑翔道”的方式來實現其凈零目標。依據這一計劃,公司將在2028-2030年期間削減公司半數的碳排放。因此,盡管這家醫藥巨頭可能在眼下并未走入正軌(報告稱,“其碳削減通道意味著葛蘭素史克不會采取短期氣候行動”),但隨著時間的推移,其舉措將大幅加速。

    與此同時,該報告發現,亞馬遜的碳中和計劃“沒有多少誠意”,意味其兌現目標的可能性不大。然而該公司在一份聲明中表示,自己依然致力于在2040年前實現凈零目標,相對于各國領袖在《巴黎協定》中設定的各自國家實現整體凈零排放的日期提前了10年。該聲明稱,亞馬遜計劃在2025年之前使用100%的可再生能源來支持其業務,在2030年之前實現半數發貨的凈零排放,并在2030年前部署10萬輛電動送貨車。

    雀巢(Nestlé)全球氣候交付和可持續采購負責人本杰明·維爾稱,該報告并未完全審視其公司的計劃。他說:“我們對審視公司氣候變化行動和承諾的舉措表示歡迎。然而,該報告并未完全理解我們的方法,并含有大量的不準確信息。雀巢氣候路線圖已經得到了科學碳目標倡議組織(Science-Based Targets Initiative,一家企業可持續性調查機構)的驗證。我們在這方面的工作十分嚴謹、廣泛?!?/p>

    盡管如此,新氣候研究所的托馬斯表示,各大公司在享受綠色動議帶來的公共聲譽時并沒有投入多少精力來履行其承諾,而是“一如往?!?。他說:“各大公司還有很大的改善余地,我們對此感到非常失望和吃驚。它們需要大幅提升這些目標的透明度?!?/p>

    該研究所并未圍繞目標完成的“高誠意度”進行排名,然而,它確實提到有一家公司——航運巨頭馬士基(Maersk)——有“合理的誠意”和透明度。

    該報告稱:“馬士基通過航運排放脫碳舉措,將自己定位為運輸領域的首要參與者。然而對于如何實現電力需求和供應鏈排放脫碳,馬士基并未提供明確的路線圖。隨著馬士基轉而使用替代燃料,這一方面的相對重要性也會逐漸增加?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

    譯者:馮豐

    審校:夏林

    全球有200多家大型公司已承諾在2040年前實現凈零排放,這意味著他們對待氣候變化的態度是異常認真的。然而,最近的分析發現,其中有很多公司在兌現其承諾方面還做的遠遠不夠。

    促進減緩氣候變化舉措的獨立機構新氣候研究所(New Climate Institute)的報告稱,這些公司的計劃僅能夠讓排放平均降低40%。盡管削減幅度巨大,但與這些公司所聲稱的目標還相距甚遠。

    新氣候研究所的一名分析師、該調查作者托馬斯·戴在一份聲明中表示:“我們對于自己看到的一切充滿了幼稚的樂觀。令我們感到失望的是,我們所發現的創造力要比預期的少很多?!?/p>

    該報告審視了25家已承諾在未來數十年內實現凈零碳排放的大型知名企業,包括亞馬遜(Amazon)、蘋果(Apple)、谷歌(Google)和沃爾瑪(Walmart)。其中很多公司計劃通過從移除大氣二氧化碳的項目那里購買積分來抵消排放影響。

    研究人員指出,問題在于其中很多項目并不可靠而且名不副實。報告稱:“至少有三分之二的公司依靠森林或其他生態活動帶來的碳移除效力,然而,它很容易被逆轉,例如一場森林大火?!?/p>

    但是,各大公司認為,自己在預防碳排放和氣候變化造成的進一步破壞方面所取得的成果依然遠超很多首要國家。一些公司認為,該報告只是談到了其部分計劃。

    例如,葛蘭素史克(GlaxoSmithKline)稱,公司將使用“滑翔道”的方式來實現其凈零目標。依據這一計劃,公司將在2028-2030年期間削減公司半數的碳排放。因此,盡管這家醫藥巨頭可能在眼下并未走入正軌(報告稱,“其碳削減通道意味著葛蘭素史克不會采取短期氣候行動”),但隨著時間的推移,其舉措將大幅加速。

    與此同時,該報告發現,亞馬遜的碳中和計劃“沒有多少誠意”,意味其兌現目標的可能性不大。然而該公司在一份聲明中表示,自己依然致力于在2040年前實現凈零目標,相對于各國領袖在《巴黎協定》中設定的各自國家實現整體凈零排放的日期提前了10年。該聲明稱,亞馬遜計劃在2025年之前使用100%的可再生能源來支持其業務,在2030年之前實現半數發貨的凈零排放,并在2030年前部署10萬輛電動送貨車。

    雀巢(Nestlé)全球氣候交付和可持續采購負責人本杰明·維爾稱,該報告并未完全審視其公司的計劃。他說:“我們對審視公司氣候變化行動和承諾的舉措表示歡迎。然而,該報告并未完全理解我們的方法,并含有大量的不準確信息。雀巢氣候路線圖已經得到了科學碳目標倡議組織(Science-Based Targets Initiative,一家企業可持續性調查機構)的驗證。我們在這方面的工作十分嚴謹、廣泛?!?/p>

    盡管如此,新氣候研究所的托馬斯表示,各大公司在享受綠色動議帶來的公共聲譽時并沒有投入多少精力來履行其承諾,而是“一如往?!?。他說:“各大公司還有很大的改善余地,我們對此感到非常失望和吃驚。它們需要大幅提升這些目標的透明度?!?/p>

    該研究所并未圍繞目標完成的“高誠意度”進行排名,然而,它確實提到有一家公司——航運巨頭馬士基(Maersk)——有“合理的誠意”和透明度。

    該報告稱:“馬士基通過航運排放脫碳舉措,將自己定位為運輸領域的首要參與者。然而對于如何實現電力需求和供應鏈排放脫碳,馬士基并未提供明確的路線圖。隨著馬士基轉而使用替代燃料,這一方面的相對重要性也會逐漸增加?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

    譯者:馮豐

    審校:夏林

    Over 200 of the world’s largest companies have vowed to get to net-zero emissions by 2040, signaling how seriously they’re taking climate change. But a recent analysis has found that many of those firms aren't doing nearly enough to back up their promises.

    Their plans would reduce emissions by an average of only 40%, according to the report by the New Climate Institute, an independent organization that promotes efforts to slow climate change. That’s a significant reduction, but nowhere near the companies’ stated goals.

    “We went in naively optimistic about what we might see,” Thomas Day, an analyst at the New Climate Institute and author of the study, said in a statement. “We were disappointed we didn’t find a lot more creativity that we expected to find.”

    The report examined the climate plans of 25 large and high-profile companies that have pledged to get to zero carbon emissions in the coming decades, including Amazon, Apple, Google, and Walmart. Many of those companies planned to offset emissions by buying credits from projects that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

    The problem, the researchers said, is that many of those projects are unreliable and overpromise. “At least two thirds of the companies rely on removals from forests and other biological activities, which can easily be reversed by, for example, a forest fire,” the report said.

    But companies argued that they are still well ahead of what many major countries are doing to prevent further destruction caused by carbon emissions and climate change. The report, some companies argued, failed to take into account for all of their plans.

    GlaxoSmithKline, for example, says it will use a “glidepath” to reach its net-zero goals. Under its plan, the company would cut half of its carbon emissions by 2028 to 2030. So while the pharmaceutical giant may not appear to be on track today—"With its carbon reduction pathway, GSK does not send signals for short-term climate action," the report says—its efforts will speed up considerably over time.

    Meanwhile, the report found that Amazon’s carbon-neutral plan was “low integrity”, meaning that it's unlikely to meet its goal. But the company said in a statement that it was still committed to hitting its net zero target by 2040, a decade ahead of the date world leaders had set in the Paris Agreement for their country's to become net zero overall. Amazon plans to power its operations with 100% renewable energy by 2025, deliver half its shipments with net zero carbon by 2030, and deploy 100,000 electric delivery vehicles by 2030, the statement said.

    Benjamin Ware, the global head of climate delivery and sustainable sourcing at Nestlé, also said the report didn’t fully examine his company’s plan. “We welcome scrutiny of our actions and commitments on climate change,” he said. “However, the report lacks understanding of our approach and contains significant inaccuracies. Nestlé’s climate roadmap has been validated by the Science-Based Targets Initiative [a corporate sustainability organization]. The work that went into it is rigorous and extensive.”

    Still, Day, from the New Climate Institute, says companies are benefiting from the public perception of going green while doing little beyond “business as usual” to back their claims. “We were very disappointed and surprised at how much room for improvement there was. Companies need to be much more transparent about these goals,” he said.

    The institute ranked no company's as having "high integrity" in accomplishing its goals, but it did say that one company—shipping giant Maersk—had "reasonable integrity" and transparency.

    "Maersk positions itself as a leading actor in the transport sector through its proactive efforts to decarbonize shipping emissions," the report said. "However, the company does not yet provide a clear trajectory to

    decarbonize emissions from electricity demand and supply chains, the relative importance of which is likely to grow with the shift to alternative fuels."

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